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Main Areas Of Biotechnology

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1. What's biotechnology? What areas of human activity are biotechnological processes used?

Biotechnology is an area of science and practice related to the production of various products through living organisms, cultivated cells and biological processes. Biotechnology processes are used in the food, chemical, pharmaceutical, medicine, energy, breeding, agriculture, environment, etc.

2. What are the main areas of biotechnology?

Main areas of biotechnology are:

• Production by microorganisms and cultivated eukareotic cells of biologically active compounds and medicines (ferments, vitamins, hormones, antibiotics, immunoglobulin etc.);

• Production of food and animal feeds;

∙ The creation of new useful strains of microorganisms, plant varieties and animal species;

Development and use of biological methods to protect plants against pests and diseases;

• Establishment and use of biotechnological techniques for environmental protection, etc.

3. What is cellular engineering? What sort of cellular engineering techniques do you know? What results have been obtained when applied?

Cellular engineering is specially cultivated plants, animals and microorganisms, including various manipulations with them (cluster mergers, removal or transplant of organoids, etc.).

Using genetic methods, scientists create lines of plant cells producing valuable substances. Such cells can grow on simple nutrients while synthesizing a large quantity of the required product, their cultivation is already used on an industrial scale to produce a number of biologically active substances. For example, the production of mammas for pharmaceutical and perfume industries has been established.

Multiplication based on tissue culture is used to rapidly develop slowly growing plants - oil palms, peaches, etc. For example, when a small bush is normally scattered, not more than 50 subsidiary plants per year can be produced, while more than 50,000 can be produced by tissue culture.

Somatic hybridization has created hybrids that cannot be obtained by crossing the special features of tobacco and potato hybrids, carrots and pets, tomato and potato hybrids and. ♪

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