Biotechnology medical - The technology to obtain the products necessary for the prevention and treatment of diseases from living cells of different origins. The term “biotechnology” appeared in the 1970s and merged the previously used concepts of “industrial microbiology”, “technical biochemistry”, etc.
Biotechnology processes have been used in human practice since ancient times, such as bread, dairy products, beer. In today ' s circumstances, B. is developing very intensively because of advances in biochemistry and cytology (e.g. crystal-based production and the use of stabilized and immobilized enzymes, inactive or partially destroyed immobilized micro- and macro-organism cells), fermentation technology (e.g. fermentation products, conversion of various derivatives), biodegradation). Genetic and cellular engineering have become critical to the development of modern B.
The bases of medical B. were laid in the 40s 20 in the development of the industrial production of penicillin. Products were then found and other antibiotics were industrialized. In a number of cases, antibiotics have been significantly increased, creating high-production mutant strains. A number of antibiotics are currently produced in a semi-synthetic way of bioconversion, whereby mushrooms or microorganisms perform only some key stages of molecule modification of the drug substance. This method is also used successfully in the production of steroid hormones, glucorticodes and hormones. Interferon, viral antigens use human cells cultivated in artificial environments.