Basic Methods Of Segregation And Biotechnology
Basic methods for plant and animal breeding: hybridization and artificial selection.
1. The settlement is an evolution run by a man (N. I. Babylov). The results of the evolution of the organic world are the diversity of plant and animal species. The results of the breeding are the variety of plant varieties and animal breeds. Moving forces of evolution: heinous variability and natural selection; foundation for new varieties of plants and animal breeds: heinous variability and artificial selection.
2. Plant and animal breeding methods: crossing and artificial selection. Crossing different varieties of plants and animal species is the basis for increasing genetic diversity of progeny. Plant cross-fertilization: cross-pollution and self-destruction. The Self-Development of Cross-Bordered Plants is a way to get a homosis on a number of progeny grounds. Cross-crossing is a way to increase the diversity of progeny.
3. Types of animal breeding: kinship and non-natural. Non-natural is the cross-section of individuals of one or different species, aimed at maintaining or improving the signs of breed. Intimidating is the intersection between brothers and sisters, parents and descendants, which is aimed at obtaining progeny, hypothetical, on a number of grounds, to preserve its valuable signs. Crossing is one of the phases of the settlement.
4. Artificial selection - Maintaining for further multiplication of individuals with interesting breeding grounds. Selection forms: mass and individual. Mass selection is the retention of a group of descendants with valuable signs. Individual selection is the identification of individuals with personal characteristics and their progeny.
5. The use of mass selection in plant breeding for genetically diverse material, heterosotic species. The results of multiple individual selections are clean (homosy) lines.
6. The reasons for using only individual selection in animal breeding are small progeny. When selecting the specialities, account must be taken of the development of exterritorial signs (consulations, body parts ratios, external signs) that are linked to the formation of economic characteristics (e.g. cow dairy).
7. Crossing and selection are universal methods of breeding, the possibility of applying them to new varieties of plants and animal breeds.