Successes Of Modern Biotechnology
An important achievement of genetics and microbiology is the discovery of biotechnology, an industrial way of producing biological objects based on controlled metabolism of living organisms.
Biotechnology (from Greek bios - life, tecen - art, logos - science) is an area of knowledge that has emerged and developed in the interface of microbiology, molecular biology, genetic engineering, immunology, chemical technology and a number of other sciences. Biotechnology is driven by the needs of society for new, cheaper products for agriculture, medicine and veterinary, as well as innovative technologies.
The purpose of biotechnology is to obtain products from or using biological objects and to reproduce them. One-cell microorganisms, animals and plant cells, as well as animal, human or plant organisms, are most commonly used as biological objects.
Biotechnology emerged in ancient history, about 6,000 to 5,000 years before N.E., when people learned to eat bread, cook beer, cook cheese and wine. This first phase of biotechnology has been purely empirical and has continued to do so despite the improvement of technological processes and the expansion of fields use of biotechnology Receptions, until the opening of L. Paster in XIX to the enzymatic nature of the fermentation. Since then, the second, scientific, phase of traditional biotechnology has started.
During this period, enzymes have been received and distributed, many micro-organisms have been opened, and ways have been developed to grow and receive them in large quantities. Animal and plant cell cultures have been created and artificial cultivation has been developed. The study of physiology, biochemistry and genetics of microbial and animal cells identified ways of obtaining many microbial synthetic products needed for medicine, agriculture and industry. Technical microbiology was initially developed and biotechnology developed. However, industrial production was mainly based on the natural strains of bacteria, bladder, mushrooms, viruses from which the necessary product was then obtained or disbursed (ferments, antibiotics, antigens, whites, etc.).